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Spices & Extracts
India can boast as the monopoly supplier of spices, spice oils and oleoresins the world over. In the case of curry powders, spice powders, spice mixtures and packed spices too, the country is in a formidable position. India exports more than 0.40 million tons of spices annually and account for around 48% of the global export volume and 44% of the export value.
Chilly, Turmeric, Pepper, Cummin, Coriander, Ginger, Cardamom, Tamarind, Cloves, Fenugreek, Fennel, Celery, Garlic, Vanilla, Nutmeg & Mace, Asafoetida, Cinnamon, Cambodge, Cassia, Saffron, Oils & Oleoresins, Mint products and Curry Powder are the major Spice items exported from the country.
During the year 2007-08, the export earnings from spices have surpassed the $1 billion mark for the first time and registered an all time high both in terms of quantity and value in spice exports. The export of spices from India during the year has been 444250 ton valued at $1101.80 million registering an increase of 39% in value over 2006-07.
Kerala, which is the Spices Garden of India, is home to all major items of export like Pepper, Cardamom, Ginger, Turmeric, Curry powder, Spice oils and Oleoresins, Vanilla, Nutmeg and mace.
During 2006-07, the State’s share to total Pepper export from the country was above 88% both in quantity and value. The export of Vanilla from Kerala increased from 22.18 ton in 2005-06 to 56.75 ton in 2007-06 and earned Rs.635.39 lakhs against Rs.405.35 lakhs in the previous year, achieving 56.75% increase in value and 155.9% increase in quantity.
The export of spices from Kerala is mainly through Cochin and Trivandrum Ports. The major destination of spice exports is USA followed by the European Union, Malaysia, China, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Japan and the Middle East.
The tea industry in India is more than 170 years old and occupies an important place in the national economy. Tea plantations in India are mainly located in rural and hilly areas of North-eastern and Southern States. Major tea growing regions of the country are concentrated in Assam, West Bengal, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Unlike most other tea producing and exporting countries, India has a dual manufacturing base, producing both CTC and Orthodox teas in addition to green tea.
The major market for Indian Tea is the CIS countries, mainly Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Russia is the single largest importer of Indian Tea. Other prominent markets include the U.A.E, U.K, Iran, U.S.A, Afghanistan, Germany, Australia, Japan, Netherlands, Ireland, Poland, Sri Lanka, A.R.E & Pakistan. During 2006, the total tea production in the country was 981.805 Million Kg, of which 753.243 Million Kg was the output from the Northern States, and 228.562 Million Kg from the Southern States of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka.
In 2006, Kerala alone produced 59.462 Million Kg of tea, accounting to more than 6% of the national production and 26% of the production from the Southern states.
Idukki and Wayanad are the major tea growing districts in Kerala, followed by Palakkad, Thrissur, Trivandrum, Kollam and Kottayam. The popular forms of tea available in Kerala are CTC (literally means ‘Crush, Tear and Curl’) and leaf tea. They normally have strong flavour, preferred by the people as a whole. Organic tea production is a major shift in this sector (E.g.: Darjeeling tea), and in Kerala coverage under Organic tea could be increased. Nelliyampathi estates in Palakkad district have already got Organic Certification.
Coffee is a highly export-dependent crop and more than 80% of domestic production is exported. Export of Coffee from India in terms of quantity increased from 201555 MT in 2005-06 to 249030 MT during 2006-07 showing 23.6% hike in quantity and the value realized was Rs.2007.09 Crores. The value realised increased by 32.9% compared to 23.3% of previous year. Major share of total coffee export from India is to Italy. During 2006-07 Italy imported 62786 tons of Coffee, followed by Russia and Germany.
The Southern states of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu are the traditional Coffee growing areas in the country. During 2006-07, the area under Coffee plantation in Kerala was 0.846 lakh ha out of 3.28 lakh ha in the country, which works out to 26%. Kerala’s production of Coffee during the year was 0.59 lakh MT as against 2.82 lakh MT for the country, accounting to about 21% of the national output. The major Coffee variety grown in Kerala is Robusta with a share of 95% in planted area.
Coffee provides opportunities for livelihood to nearly one lakh families including agricultural laborers. In Kerala, Coffee is also one of the small holder plantation crops with nearly 76,000 holdings coming under the category with an average size of 1.1 ha.
Out of the total Coffee export from India the highest contribution is from Cochin port, constituting 41.82% of the total export. During 2006-07, an increase of 14.3% in quantity export was realised from Cochin Port compared to the previous year.
Coir & Coir Products
Coir industry is one of the major traditional industries in the State and second only to agriculture in terms of employment. It provides employment to around 4 lakh persons, of which 84% are women. With 10.05 lakh hectares under coconut cultivation, this accounts for 45% of the net cropped area in the State.
The Coir industry in the State is mainly concentrated in the regions of Alappuzha, Kayamkulam, Chirayinkeezhu, Kollam, North Parur, Thrissur, Kozhikode, Kannur, Ponnani and Vaikom. Handloom mats, Tufted mats, Power loom mat, Coir fibre, Coir pith, Rubberized coir and Coir geo textiles, Handloom matting and Coir yarn are the major items of export.
Export of Coir and Coir products from India during the period 2006-07 recorded an all time high with impressive increase in both quantity and value. In value terms, the coir exports stood at Rs.605.17 crores attaining 19% growth in value by exporting 1.69 lakh ton of Coir Products. The increase recorded in quantity was 32728 ton and in value it is Rs.96.72 crores.
The number of countries importing coir and coir products from India increased to 97 from 91 last year. U.S.A, U.K, Germany, Netherlands, Italy and Belgium are the major markets for coir products. Among these, United States continues to be the single largest market accounting for 37% of the total export and European countries together imported more than 41%. U.S.A stands first with regard to import of major share of handloom mats, tufted mats, coir geo textiles and power loom mat. The biggest market for coir yarn and coir pith is Netherlands and for coir handloom marketing UK stands first.